Lost River sucker : Deltistes luxatus

Fish World | Lost River sucker : Deltistes luxatus | The Lost River sucker is a big fish in freshwater ecosystems in California and Oregon. It is a fish alive, sometimes reaching an age of 40 or more. His main residence is in the lakes, but migrate to rivers and streams to spawn. The Lost River sucker is threatened by overfishing and dam construction and drainage of wetlands.
The Lost River sucker was federally listed endangered species in 1988. A recovery plan was published in 1993. Critical habitat was proposed in 1994 but not designated. A status review was conducted in 2004 and a five-year review was made in 2007.
Trademark indicate that Lost River suckers were once widespread and abundant in the upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California. This area historically contained more than 350,000 acres of wetlands and floodplains. These protected wetlands habitat by controlling erosion sucker, recycling of organic and inorganic nutrients, and maintain water quality. Because suckers have historically been very plentiful, they were an important food source for American Indians and local settlers in the late 1800s. The canneries have been established along the Lost River suckers in the process of oil, dried fish, and other products. 

However, agricultural development and water and related land use changes in the basin have contributed to the significant loss of wetland habitats and a significant decrease in sucker populations. While overfishing and pollution may have played a role in the decline of species, it is believed that the combined effects of dam construction, drainage or dredging of lakes, and other changes have reduced the natural flow success Reproduction of Lost River suckers by as much as 95 percent by the degradation of suitable breeding habitat. At the time of Lost River sucker was listed as endangered, it was noted that there had been no more of youth in the population in 18 years.
Currently, the Lost River sucker occupies only a fraction of its former range and is limited to a few areas in the upper basin of Klamath, such as drainage of Upper Klamath Lake, Tule Lake and Clear Lake. Poor water quality, reduces the habitat suitable for all sizes and ages, and the impact of non-native fish continue to threaten the remaining populations Lost River Sucker.
Locally known as the mule, the Lost River sucker is a long life of up to 43 years the miller. It has triangular shaped structures of the gills which are used to stress a system of detritus (decaying organic matter), zooplankton (small floating aquatic animals), algae and aquatic insects from the water. Lost River suckers usually begin to breed at nine years old the first time they participate in the spawning migration. Suckers adults migrate into the calm waters of lakes in the fast flux from March to May to spawn. They can also spawn in Spring Lake from February to mid-April when the water temperature is a constant 15 C (60 F).  

Thousands of eggs (from 44 000 to 218 000 small fish for large suction cups) are usually established near the bottom stream in areas where gravel or pebbles is available. Once the eggs hatch, the larval fish begin their migration back to calmer waters. They generally migrate at night and stay in shallow waters riparian, and aquatic vegetation during the day. Upon their return to the lake, the larvae may be preyed upon by bass, perch, or other non-native fish predators, and large juveniles may compete for food with non-native fish such as minnows, the perch, and others.
The Lost River sucker lives in the deep waters of lakes and springs or spawn in the tributaries upstream of Lake home. Areas with gravel or stone close ("pebble") bottom spring latch or moderate to high speed are preferred for spawning. In addition, spawning has a shallow shoreline with abundant aquatic vegetation, these areas offer a safe haven for young larvae during their return journey downstream from their home or the deep waters of lakes and calm rivers.

Although a number of factors have contributed to the decline of the Lost River sucker, degradation of habitat is considered the main cause. Streams, rivers and lakes have been altered by channelization and dams. Grazing in the riparian zone of riparian vegetation was removed and added nutrients and sediment to river systems. The eggs and larvae, for example, suffocation when the water is cloudy, or dry or be eaten by other fish when they are not covered by aquatic vegetation. Loss of riparian vegetation due to overgrazing, logging, agricultural practices and road construction has also resulted in increased flow temperatures, high levels of nutrients (which promotes the accumulation of excess algae and bacteria) and serious problems of erosion and sedimentation in rivers.  

These problems of water quality have reduced the availability of suitable habitat Lost River Sucker and led to significant fish mortality. Age of whole young shoots are regularly lost due to poor quality water. As a result, few young suckers survive to sexual maturity, and therefore, do not increase the size of the population. Other factors affecting the decline of the Lost River sucker is over-previous chemical pollution from pesticides, herbicides and forestry practices and predation and competition from non-native and native fish such as bass, blue chub, perch, minnows, and rainbow trout.

Conservation efforts for the home on the Lost River Sucker recovery of an ecosystem function more naturally in the Klamath Basin. Fencing portions of streams to reduce erosion caused by cattle, reforestation of riverbanks with native vegetation, improved forestry and agricultural practices, and ensuring adequate levels of water in reservoirs contribute to the recovery of this species. With the coordination of agencies in the use of land and private landowners, habitat degradation vacuum can be avoided and steps can be taken to improve current conditions. Minimizing the impact of future changes in spawning habitat and restoration of water to a more natural state, the recovery of Lost River sucker populations is possible in the Klamath Basin.